Elevated uric acid symptoms, Hyperuricemia

Elevated uric acid symptoms, Hyperuricemia. A hyperuricemic response occurs when the body’s uric acid level is elevated. Symptoms can occur at a level higher than 6.8 mg/dL, and anything over 7 mg/dL is considered saturation. A further increase in uric acid production, a decrease in excretion, or a combination of the two processes may result in this elevated level.

The presence of high uric acid levels can lead to a variety of health problems over time, including a painful type of arthritis. Several other health conditions are associated with high uric acid levels, including heart disease, diabetes, and kidney disease.

Elevated uric acid symptoms, Hyperuricemia
Elevated uric acid symptoms, Hyperuricemia

What causes elevated uric acid levels?

Uric acid is formed from the breakdown of purines in your body. Uric acid is normally eliminated from your body when you urinate. To excrete 1 g of it in urine, you need only 10 ml of water. 

A diagnosis of hyperuricemia means you produce too much or are not excreting enough uric acid from your body. Typically, this is caused by the kidneys not eliminating it fast enough or consuming too much purine-rich foods. Purines are chemical compounds naturally found in certain foods and drinks. 

Common purine sources are:

  • Alcohol
  • Beans
  • Seafood
  • Organ meat
  • Red meat

Crystals can form in your blood when your blood counts of uric acid are too high. Despite the fact that they can occur anywhere in the body, they usually form in or around the joints and in the kidneys. Inflammation and pain may result from the white blood cells attacking crystals.

What will happen if you have high uric acid?

In most cases of hyperuricemia, only one third of individuals exhibit symptoms. Such individuals are referred to as having asymptomatic hyperuricemia. 

In spite of the fact that hyperuricemia isn’t a disease, it can lead to several diseases if the uric acid levels remain high.

Gouty Arthritis

About 20 percent of people with hyperuricemia develop gout, also known as gouty arthritis. Gout is also caused by a rapid decrease in uric acid levels. Individual attacks or flare-ups of the disease can occur. Several attacks of chronic gout occur over a shorter period of time for some people.

A flare of gout may affect any joint in your body, but typically starts in your large toe. A common site of gout is the foot, ankle, knee, and elbow. A gout attack often occurs at night, suddenly. It peaks in intensity after 12 to 14 hours. Its attack generally subsides within two weeks, regardless of treatment.

Gout may cause the following symptoms:

  • Joint pains that are extremely painful
  • Swelling and redness
  • Stiffness of the joints
  • Affected joints are difficult to move
  • Deformities of the joints

Gout Tophi

The buildup of uric acid crystals can cause tophi if you’ve had hyperuricemia for a long time. You may find hard lumps around your joints, in the curve at the top of your ear, and under your skin. Joint pain caused by tophi can worsen over time, causing damage to your joints and nerves. This can lead to disfigurement.

Renal stones

The buildup of uric acid crystals in your kidneys can lead to kidney (Renal) stones. These stones are usually small and pass through your urine. In some cases, they become too large for your urinary system to handle and block it.

Kidney stones can cause the following symptoms:

  • You may be experiencing lower back pain, side pain, or stomach pain
  • Urination problems
  • Urination urges increase.
  • Urine with a foul smell
  • Urinating causes pain
  • A bloody urine
  • Feeling nauseated

Fever and chills may accompany a kidney infection.

What should I do if my uric acid is high?

Depending on the diagnoses, your doctor may refer you for urine and blood tests to check creatinine levels, which indicate kidney function, and uric acid levels. Any uric acid crystals found in your joints will need to be tested if you have symptoms of gout. Such crystals indicate the condition.

Depending on the cause of your hyperuricemia, you will require different treatment. It is not recommended to treat hyperuricemia if you are asymptomatic. Therapy to lower uric acid levels is not proven to be beneficial in this case.

You need to treat the associated condition if your hyperuricemia is caused underlying problem:

Treatment Of Gout 

The following medications are used to treat gouty arthritis:

  • Gout can be prevented or reduced by using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 
  • Those gout patients who cannot tolerate NSAIDs, may benefit from Colcrys.
  • By increasing urination, probenecid lowers uric acid levels and prevents gout attacks.
  • Uloric and Zyloprim reduce the amount of uric acid in your blood, which prevents the development of gout.

Gout Tophi is treated in the same way as gouty arthritus. Surgical removal is necessary if tophi contribute to joint dysfunction, cause tissue damage, or become protruding.

Treatment Of Renal Stones

The smallest kidney stones (microstones smaller than 5 mm) are usually managed by drinking a lot of water and taking over-the-counter pain medication.

The likelihood of kidney stones passing by themselves is low for stones that are greater than 5 mm. Tamsulosin (Flomax) is prescribed by doctors to relax the muscles in the urinary tract. It can ease the pain associated with passing stones.

By breaking up the larger stones into smaller pieces, lithotripsy facilitates their passage through the urinary tract more easily.

You may need to have the stones surgically removed if they are larger than 10 mm.

Diet For Hyperuricemia

You may be able to lower your blood uric acid levels by changing your diet. Changing your diet may help you reduce your chances of a gout attack and slow the progression of any damage to your joints if your gout is due to hyperuricemia.

Consult your doctor if you think a change in your diet can be helpful. Your doctor will be able to provide you with advice. It is important to continue following your doctor’s treatment plan if you decide to modify your diet. First-line treatment should not include dietary changes.

When you break down purines in your body, uric acid is formed. In addition to occurring naturally, purine can also be found in certain foods. It is therefore better to avoid these foods.

Drink more water, as well as reducing purines. Hydrating can help prevent gout attacks. It is recommended to drink eight glasses of 8-ounce liquids every day. Ask your doctor for guidance regarding how much to drink.

Regular exercise and healthy weight maintenance are also important. Discuss with your physician the best way to manage your weight.

Notes on remembering

A change in lifestyle and diet can lead to a decrease in your blood levels of uric acid if you have asymptomatic hyperuricemia.

In the absence of proper uric acid control, you may develop:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetic condition
  • Chronic gout
  • Metabolic issues
  • Kidney issues

For the prevention of chronic medical conditions, you should stick to your doctor’s recommendations.

External resources: Pubmed

Read also: Foods That Raise Uric Acid; Oatmeal and uric acid: Is it good or bad?

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